Basics of SAR Polarimetry II
UIC-ECE COMMUNICATIONS CHICAGO IL COMMUNICATIONS, SENSING AND NAVIGATION LAB
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A comprehensive overview of the basic principles of radar polarimetry is presented. The relevant fundamental field equations are first provided. The importance of the propagation and scattering behavior in various frequency bands, the electrodynamic foundations such as Maxwells equations, the Helmholtz vector wave equation and especially the fundamental laws of polarization will first be introduced The fundamental terms which represent the polarization state will be introduced, defined and explained. Main points of view are the polarization Ellipse, the polarization ratio, the Stokes Parameter and the Stokes and Jones vector formalisms as well as its presentation on the Poincare sphere and on relevant map projections. The Polarization Fork descriptor and the associated van Zyl polarimetric power density and Agrawal polarimetric phase correlation signatures will be introduced also in order to make understandable the polarization state formulations of electromagnetic waves in the frequency domain. The polarization state of electromagnetic waves under scattering conditions i.e. in the radar case will be described by matrix formalisms. Each scatterer is a polarization transformer under normal conditions the transformation from the transmitted wave vector to the received wave vector is linear and this behavior, principally, will be described by a matrix called scattering matrix. This matrix contains all the information about the scattering process and the scatterer itself. The different relevant matrices, the respective terms like Jones Matrix, S-matrix, Mueller M-matrix, Kennaugh K-matrix, etc. and its interconnections will be defined and described together with change of polarization bases transformation operators, where upon the optimal Characteristic polarization states are determined for the coherent and partially coherent cases, respectively. The lecture is concluded with a set of simple examples.
- Active and Passive Radar Detection and Equipment
- Radiofrequency Wave Propagation
- Numerical Mathematics