Trace Mineral Losses in Sweat
ARMY RESEARCH INST OF ENVIRONMENTAL MEDICINE NATICK MA THERMAL AND MOUNTAIN MEDICINE DIVISION
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Copper, iron and zinc are nutritionally essential trace minerals that confer vital biological roles including the maintenance of cell structure and integrity, regulation of metabolism, immune function, oxygen transport, and muscle and central nervous system function. Dietary Reference Intakes DRIs for these minerals are useful for the general population, but these guidelines may be inadequate for some populations e.g., soldiers, athletes who experience copious sweating due to high physical activity levels andor frequent exposure to extreme environmental conditions. The trace mineral content of sweat may predispose these populations to subclinicalclinical nutritional deficiencies. Studies on sweat trace mineral losses report highly variable results. Much of the variability may be methodological. Non-standardization of collection techniques, collections sites local versus whole body, and numerous other variables cloud definitive conclusions on sweat trace mineral losses. The objectives of this manuscript are to 1 review the literature on swear copper, iron and zinc losses, 2 present the potential sources of variability, 3 interpret findings in relation to nutritional needs, and 4 identify directions for future research.
- Anatomy and Physiology
- Food, Food Service and Nutrition
- Stress Physiology