Shaping Jihadism: How Syria Molded the Muslim Brotherhood
NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA
Pagination or Media Count:
In February 1982, Syrian President Assads military and security forces surrounded, assaulted, and leveled the fourth largest city in Syria, Hama, killing between 5,000-25,000 Syrians in less than three weeks. It was the culmination of an escalating five year revolutionary war between the Syrian Muslim Brotherhood and President Hafez Assad s authoritarian rule. Through the use of overwhelming force and a government sponsored moderate Islamification process, the Muslim Brotherhood was transformed from a violent revolutionary opposition movement to a peace oriented social organization calling for a representative democratic government. Using Social Movement Theory SMT and Dr. McCormick s Mystic Diamond, this thesis demonstrates how extreme state violence affects opposition social movements. It analyzes why the Muslim Brotherhood s revolution failed, why the Assad regime succeeded, and how its overwhelming defeat transformed the Syrian Muslim Brotherhood from a violent revolutionary organization to a peaceful social movement. The Syrian counter-insurgency model provides a viable strategy that can be applied to existing and future insurgencies throughout the Middle East.
- Government and Political Science
- Personnel Management and Labor Relations
- Military Forces and Organizations
- Unconventional Warfare