Afghanistan: Post-War Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy
LIBRARY OF CONGRESS WASHINGTON DC CONGRESSIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE
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Afghanistans political transition was completed with the convening of a parliament in December 2005, but in 2006 insurgent threats to Afghanistans government escalated to the point that some experts were questioning the success of U.S. stabilization efforts. In the political process, a new constitution was adopted in January 2004, successful presidential elections were held on October 9, 2004, and parliamentary elections took place on September 18, 2005. The parliament has become an arena for factions that have fought each other for nearly three decades to debate and peacefully resolve differences. Afghan citizens are enjoying new personal freedoms that were forbidden under the Taliban. Women are participating in economic and political life, including as ministers, provincial governors, and senior levels of the new parliament. U.S. and partner stabilization measures focus on strengthening the central government and its security forces and on promoting reconstructing while combating the renewed insurgent challenge. The United States and other countries are building an Afghan National Army, deploying a NATO-led International Security Assistance Force ISAF that now commands peacekeeping throughout Afghanistan, and running regional enclaves to secure reconstruction Provincial Reconstruction Teams, PRTs. Approximately 27,000 U.S. troops remain in Afghanistan to help combat the insurgency, of which all but about 12,000 are under NATOISAF command. To build security institutions and assist reconstruction, the United States gave Afghanistan about 4.35 billion in FY2005, including funds to equip and train Afghan security forces. Another approximately 3 billion was provided in FY2006. FY2007 appropriations add another approximately 2.6 billion, including security forces funding, and the Administration has requested a total of 10.6 billion in additional FY2007 and FY2008 funds for both security and civilian reconstruction functions.
- Government and Political Science
- Economics and Cost Analysis
- Military Operations, Strategy and Tactics