Critical Infrastructures: Background, Policy, and Implementation
LIBRARY OF CONGRESS WASHINGTON DC CONGRESSIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE
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The nations health, wealth, and security rely on the production and distribution of certain goods and services. The array of physical assets, functions, and systems across which these goods and services move are called critical infrastructures e.g., electricity, the power plants that generate it, and the electric grid upon which it is distributed. The national security community has been concerned for sometime about the vulnerability of critical infrastructure to both physical and cyber attack. In May 1998, President Clinton released Presidential Decision Directive No. 63. The Directive set up groups within the federal government to develop and implement plans that would protect government-operated infrastructures and called for a dialogue between government and the private sector to develop a National Infrastructure Assurance Plan that would protect all of the nations critical infrastructures by the year 2003. The Bush Administration released Executive Order 13228, signed October 8, 2001, establishing the Office of Homeland Security. Among its duties, the Office shall coordinate efforts to protect the United States and its critical infrastructure from the consequences of terrorist attacks. In December 2003, the Bush Administration released Homeland Security Presidential Directive 7, reiterating and expanding upon infrastructure protection policy and responsibilities. In June 2006, the Bush Administration released its National Infrastructure Protection Plan. This report discusses in more detail the evolution of a national critical infrastructure policy and the institutional structures established to implement it. The report highlights five issues of Congressional concern identifying critical assets assessing vulnerabilities allocating resources information sharing and, regulation.
- Civil Engineering
- Civil Defense
- Electric Power Production and Distribution
- Radio Communications