The Failure of American Civil War Reconstruction: Lessons for Post-Conflict Operations in Iraq
NAVAL WAR COLL NEWPORT RI JOINT MILITARY OPERATIONS DEPT
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When the American Civil War ended in 1865, Northern expectations were that a properly executed reconstruction plan would result in the Souths restoration and rapid entry back into the Union. Due to a poorly planned, misguided approach, however, Union efforts in the South did not achieve the objectives of a re-unified republic and equal opportunity for its citizens. Instead, white Southerners resented the North, despised the idea of equality for their former slaves, and spawned an insurgency that resulted in their dominance over blacks in the South--arguably until the Civil Rights movement of the 1950s and 60s. Today in Iraq, the Sunni populace laments its loss of power and is fighting to ensure that Shiite Arabs and Kurds are not successful in their bid to participate in a representative government. By studying Northern efforts during Reconstruction and the roots of the resultant Southern insurgency, leaders in the United States today can understand the pitfalls of incomplete Phase IV planning and the roots of insurgency. By using the principles of Military Operations Other Than War MOOTW--objective, unity of effort, security, restraint, legitimacy, and perseverance--leaders can overcome similar mistakes in Iraq and ensure a government representative of all Iraqi people is established.
- Chemical, Biological and Radiological Warfare