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Medical Vanguard Diabetes Management Project

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Annual rept. 1 Sep 2004-31 Aug 2005

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The objective of this research is to exploit the findings of Project Vanguard Phase I and II to produce more robust scientific tools for graded alerting of transnational biological threats using Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis VEE, a mosquito borne viral disease, as a case study. These new tools will play an essential role in future research and contribute to advancing TATRC s mission in the use of Indications and Warnings IWs biosurveillance for biodefense. Indications and Warnings IWs potentially alert U.S. responders of an imminent foreign bioevent weeks to months in advance. IWs are markers occurring globally, outside of U.S. borders, before an outbreak can affect U.S. interests, forces or domestic territory, thus allowing the U.S. time to respond. In effect, IWs can prime the national response infrastructure by alerting agencies of an evolving threat that could ultimately be highly disruptive or catastrophic. Venezuelan equine encephalitis VEE virus is a zoonotic, mosquito-borne, viral disease affecting humans and equines where equines serve as amplifying hosts. It is an RNA alphavirus of the Togaviridae genus that is serologically classified into six antigenic subtypes I-VI and six varieties A, AB, C, D, E, F 1. Epizooticepidemic type IAB and IC are the only subtypes associated with significant human and equine outbreaks 1,2. VEE has caused periodic outbreaks in humans and equines in Latin America since the early 1920s. Considering that epizootic VEE has not been diagnosed or isolated in the United States since 1971, there are concerns that VEE would make an effective bioterrorist agent 1,3,4. VEE is considered an incapacitating agent rather than a lethal agent such as anthrax or plague. Past outbreaks have suggested that a low infective dose is necessary for transmission 4,5.

Subject Categories:

  • Medicine and Medical Research
  • Microbiology
  • Chemical, Biological and Radiological Warfare

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