3D Photonic Integrated Circuits for WDM Applications
CALIFORNIA UNIV SANTA CRUZ SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING
Pagination or Media Count:
The wafer fusion technique for realization of compact waveguide switches, filters and 3D photonic integrated circuits is investigated theoretically and experimentally. Calculations based on the beam propagation method show that very short vertical directional couplers with 40-220 micrometers coupling lengths and high extinction ratios from 20 to 32 dB can be realized. These extinction ratios can be further improved using a slight asymmetry in waveguide structure. The optical loss at the fused interface was investigated by comparison of the transmission loss in InGaAsP-based ridge-loaded waveguide structures with and without a fused layer near the core region. This reveals an excess loss of 1.1 dBcm at 1.55 micrometers wavelength due to the fused interface. Fused straight vertical directional couplers have been fabricated and characterized. Waveguides separated by 0.6 micrometer gap layer exhibit a coupling length of 62 micrometers and a switching voltage of about 12 volts. Since GaAs and InP have different material dispersion at 1.55 micrometer wavelength, a combination of InP and GaAs couplers is used to demonstrate an inherent polarization independent and narrowband filter.
- Electrical and Electronic Equipment