Accession Number:

ADA460732

Title:

Mechanisms to Detoxify Selected Organic Contaminants in Higher Plants and Microbes, and Their Potential Use in Landscape Management

Descriptive Note:

Letter rept.

Corporate Author:

ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF GEORGIA (TBILISI) DURMISHIDZE INST OF BIOCHEMISTRY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY

Report Date:

2004-10-01

Pagination or Media Count:

144.0

Abstract:

In this report biochemical and physiological processes important for the phytoremediation of organic contaminants are discussed. Literature data on the uptake and potential of plants and microorganisms to detoxify organic contaminants are analyzed. Mechanisms of penetration and translocation of organic contaminants in plant leaves and roots are described. The principal transformation phases of organic contaminants once entered into a plant are functionalization, conjugation and compartmentation. The following mechanisms to detoxify organic contaminants are discussed and the chemical reactions involved described excretion, hydroxylation, reduction, hydrolysis, conjugate formation glycosylation, peptide conjugation. The most important enzymes that participate in these processes, i.e., cytochrome P450-containing monooxygenase, peroxidase, phenoloxidase, nitroreductase, esterase, transferase, are characterized and known mechanisms of their actions discussed. Recently generated, so far unpublished, data on the uptake and transformation of TNT in plants and microorganisms are presented. Several effects on the plant cell ultrastructure are illustrated of organic contaminants with different chemical characteristics, as well as the changes cells undergo during the detoxification process. Two lists are presented of plant and microbial strains potentially utilizable for the remediation of organic contaminants. Further study of plants and microorganisms with a high potential for remediation of organic contaminants is recommended, and the subsequent application of the generated results is suggested.

Subject Categories:

  • Organic Chemistry
  • Environmental Health and Safety

Distribution Statement:

APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE