Simulation of Supersonic Base Flows: Numerical Investigations Using DNS, LES, and URANS
Final rept. 1 Aug 2002-31 Jul 2006
ARIZONA UNIV TUCSON DEPT OF AEROSPACE AND MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
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Transitional and turbulent supersonic axisymmetric wakes were investigated by conducting various numerical experiments. The main objective was to identify hydrodynamic instability mechanisms in the flow at Mach number M 2.46 for several Reynolds numbers, and relating these to coherent structures that are found from various visualization techniques. The premise for this approach is the assumption that flow instabilities lead to the formation of coherent structures. The effect of these structures on the mean flow is of particular interest, as they strongly affect the base drag. Three high-order accurate compressible codes were developed in cylindrical coordinates for this research A spatial Navier-Stokes N-S code to conduct Direct Numerical Simulations DNS, a linearized N-S code for linear stability investigations using two-dimensional basic states, and a temporal N-S code for performing local stability analyses. The ability of numerical simulations to deliberately exclude physical effects is exploited. With this approach, the impact of structures associated with certain modes on the global wake-behavior can be scrutinized. It is concluded that azimuthal modes with low wavenumbers are responsible for a flat mean base-pressure distribution and that k2 and k4 are the dominant modes in the trailing wake, producing a four-lobe wake pattern. Circumstantial evidence is presented that absolutely unstable global modes within the recirculation region coexist with convectively unstable shear-layer modes. The flow is found to be absolutely unstable with respect to modes k0 for ReD 5,000 and with respect to the axisymmetric mode for ReD100,000. Furthermore, it is investigated whether flow control measures designed to weaken the naturally most significant modes can decrease the base drag. Finally, the novel Flow Simulation Methodology FSM, using state-of-the-art turbulence closures, was shown to reproduce DNS results at a fraction of the computational cost.
- Computer Programming and Software
- Fluid Mechanics