Military Integration as a Factor for Post-Conflict Stability and Reconciliation: Rwanda, 1994-2005
NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA
Pagination or Media Count:
The international community adopted Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegration DDR programs at the end of the Cold War in 1989 as a means to end violent conflicts in various parts of world. The traditional DDR programs were designed either to disband the defeated enemy forces, or to integrate ex-combatants where the fighting has not been conclusive. Exclusion of ex-combatants has resulted in renewed conflict. This thesis argues that conventional DDR has neglected two important factors that are crucial for sustainable stability and societal reconciliation military integration and a sensitization program. In contrast, an approach that integrates former enemy forces and equally reintegrates ex-combatants and government forces into civilian society not only ends violent conflict, but also bridges the social gap among ethnic groups and, consequently, enhances societal reconciliation. The Rwandan Disarmament, Demobilization, Reintegration, and Integration DDRI program considers integrationreintegration of ex-combatants that precedes the sensitization phase that takes 3-4 months. This has led to stability and reconciliation after the 1994 genocide. Ingando is a reconciliation tool that transforms negative perceptions that cause ethnic hatred mitigates conflict influence factors and manages defeat, shame, and remorse on the part of the loser. Therefore, DDRI programs that integrate a sensitization program and exit strategy lead to sustainable stability and reconciliation.
- Government and Political Science
- Sociology and Law
- Military Forces and Organizations
- Unconventional Warfare