Landing Characteristics of the Apollo Spacecraft with Deployed-Heat-Shield Impact Attenuation Systems
NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION HAMPTON VA LANGLEY RESEARCH CENTER
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An experimental investigation was made to determine the landing characteristics of a 14-scale dynamic model of the Apollo spacecraft command module using two different active heat shield deployed prior to landing landing systems for impact attenuation. One landing system configuration 1 consisted of six hydraulic struts and eight crushable honeycomb struts. The other landing system configuration 2, consisting of four hydraulic struts and six strain straps, was lighter. Tests made on water and the hard clay-gravel composite landing surfaces simulated parachute letdown vertical velocities of 23 ftsec 7.0 ms full scale. Landings made on the sand landing surface simulated vertical velocities of 30 ftsec 9.1 ms. Horizontal velocities of from 0 to 50 ftsec 15 ms were simulated. Landing attitudes ranged from -30 degrees to 20 degrees , and the roll attitudes were 0 degrees, 90 degrees, and 180 degrees.
- Flight Control and Instrumentation
- Unmanned Spacecraft