Chemical Weapons Convention: Issues for Congress
LIBRARY OF CONGRESS WASHINGTON DC CONGRESSIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE
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More than 100 years of international efforts to ban chemical weapons culminated January 13, 1993, in the signing of the Chemical Weapons Convention CWC. The Convention entered into force April 29, 1997. One hundred forty-eight of the 174 signatories have ratified the Convention. On April 24, 1997, the Senate passed the CWC resolution of ratification S.Res. 75, 105th Congress by a vote of 74-26. President Clinton signed the resolution and the United States became the 75th nation to ratify the Convention. The CWC bans the development, production, stockpiling, and use of chemical weapons by members signatories. It also requires the destruction of all chemical weapons stockpiles and production facilities. The Convention provides the most extensive and intrusive verification regime of any arms control treaty, extending its coverage to not only governmental but also civilian facilities. The Convention also requires export controls and reporting requirements on chemicals that can be used as warfare agents and their precursors. The CWC establishes the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons OPCW to oversee the Conventions implementation. Chemical Weapons Convention implementing legislation P.L. 105-277 provides the statutory authority for domestic compliance with the Conventions provisions. It sets criminal and civil penalties for the development, production, acquisition, stockpiling, transfer, possession, or use of chemical weapons.
- Government and Political Science
- Chemical, Biological and Radiological Warfare