Role of P13 Kinase Signaling Pathways in Polarity Determination of Human Mammary Epithelial Cells Grown in Three-Dimensional Extracellular Matrix
Annual summary rept. 1 Sep 2004-31 Aug 2005
CALIFORNIA UNIV BERKELEY
Pagination or Media Count:
Metastasis is one of the major characteristics of malignancy, a process by which cancer cells acquire aberrant ability to undergo a complex process in order to become invasive and ultimately metastasize to distant organs. Tumor cells use mechanisms to migrate, which are similar to those that occur in normal, nonmalignant cells during physiological processes such as embryonic morphogenesis, wound healing, and immune- cell trafficking Friedl and Brocker 2000 Friedl and Wolf 2003. Unlike physiological processes of cell invasion, however, the migration of tumor cells seems to be activated by a dominance of promigratory events in the absence of countering stop signals Giannelli, Falk-Marzillier et al. 1997 Alper, Bergmann-Leitner et al. 2001. This imbalance of signals allows cancer cells to become continuously migratQry and invasive, leading to tumor expansion across tissue boundaries, followed by metastasis. This ability is achieved through the alterations of cellular signaling and gene expression, which provide cancer cells with selective advantages to dismpt and migrate through surrounding tissues and to survive in the alien growth conditions Zigrino, Loffek et al. 2005. Although abnormal cell proliferation and survival are crucial for cancer development, additional changes of genes or gene products that promote cell motility and invasion are usually required for metastasis.
- Anatomy and Physiology
- Medicine and Medical Research