Characterization of the Metabolic Flux and Apoptotic Effects of O-Hydroxyl- and N-Acyl-Modified N-Acetylmannosamine Analogs in Jurkat Cells*
JOHNS HOPKINS UNIV BALTIMORE MD DEPT OF BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING
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The supplementation of the sialic acid biosynthetic pathway with exogenously supplied N-acetylmannosamine ManNAc analogs has many potential biomedical and biotechnological applications. In this work, we explore the structure-activity relationship of Man- NAc analogs on cell viability and metabolic flux into the sialic acid biosynthetic pathway to gain a better understanding of the fundamental biology underlying glycosylation engineering technology. A panel of ManNAc analogs bearing various modifications on the hydroxyl groups as well as substitutions at the N-acyl position was investigated. Increasing the carbon chain length of ester derivatives attached to the hydroxyl groups increased the metabolic efficiency of sialic acid production, whereas similar modification to the N-acyl group decreased efficiency. In both cases, increases in chain length decreased cell viability DNA ladder formation, Annexin V-FITC two-dimensional flow cytometry assays, caspase-3 activation, and down-regulation of sialoglycoconjugate-processing enzymes established that the observed growth inhibition and toxicity resulted from apoptosis. Two of the panel of 12 analogs tested, specifically Ac4ManNLev and Ac4ManNHomoLev, were highly toxic. Interestingly, both of these analogs maintained a ketone functionality in the same position relative to the core monosaccharide structure, and both also inhibited flux through the sialic acid pathway the remainder of the less toxic analogs either increased or had no measurable impact on flux. These results provide fundamental insights into the role of sialic acid metabolism in apoptosis by demonstrating that ManNAc analogs can modulate apoptosis both indirectly via hydroxylgroup effects and directly through N-acyl-group effects.
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