Traditions, Changes, and Challenges: Military Operations and the Middle Eastern City
ARMY COMMAND AND GENERAL STAFF COLL FORT LEAVENWORTH KS COMBAT STUDIES INST
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The Middle East is one of the most urbanized regions of the world urbanization continues there at an unprecedented rate. Cities have been the focus of society in the region for millennia and will continue to be the centers of religion, culture, economics, and politics. It is impossible to conduct significant military operations in the region without being decisively engaged within its cities. Every Middle Eastern city can be described in terms of several cities overlain on one another there is the traditional city under the sway of strong Islamic influence and centuries of customs and traditions, the third-world city that represents all the developing world problems and challenges, and the modern city that city planners and developers are striving to build. Various urban models describe the patterns formed by these diverse, urban influences. The Islamic City Model exhibits the strong impact of religion on urban life. The Zeigler Model shows how the city has grown and changed over time. The Multi-nuclei Model exhibits how city land use is related spatially and divided functionally and among social and economic groups it also illustrates how the citys disparate sectors are tied together through the network of mosques and Islam. Though each of the models contributes to understanding the city, none capture all its important influences. Some key factors such as geography, colonialism, and the petroleum industry do not lend themselves to modeling. Successful military operations in the region require, as a starting point, an understanding of all these models, all other factors, and how they combine to define the general nature of Middle Eastern cities. This should inform the military commander s vision for the successful conduct of Middle Eastern urban operations.
- Sociology and Law
- Military Operations, Strategy and Tactics