Accession Number:

ADA445239

Title:

History, Present Status, and Future Directions of HF Surface-Wave Radars in the U.S.

Descriptive Note:

Corporate Author:

CODAR OCEANS SENSORS LTD LOS ALTOS CA

Personal Author(s):

Report Date:

2005-04-14

Pagination or Media Count:

5.0

Abstract:

HF surface-wave radars HFSWRs offer two distinct advantages when used over the sea with vertical polarization, they see beyond the horizon, and the interaction of their signals with ocean waves is simple and well understood. As a result, many HFSWR research test programs were conducted in the U.S., beginning 35 years ago. This author was fortunate to have been immersed in these programs from the beginning. Early projects by the Defense Department focused on military target surveillance ships, aircraft, and missiles. In the mid-70s, their potential was explored for environmental measurements surface currents and sea state. Why after 35 years of testing and evaluation are none found in operational service today, except those made by CODAR for environmental monitoring I discuss this question in the present paper. My answer is they did not offer cost-effective solutions for military applications based on conventional technology. I summarize first the status of the technology, both conventional and CODARs unconventional approaches. The big cost-driver has been the huge phased-array antenna systems that constitute the conventional approach. These also raise an outcry of objection to installation at over used, valuable, or pristine coastal locations because of their size and obtrusiveness. Perhaps some of the unconventional approaches taken by CODAR and summarized below will overcome these obstacles to military deployment.

Subject Categories:

  • Active and Passive Radar Detection and Equipment
  • Physical and Dynamic Oceanography

Distribution Statement:

APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE