Degradation of Toxic Chemicals by Zero-Valent Metal Nanoparticles - A Literature Review
DEFENCE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY ORGANISATION CANBERRA (AUSTRALIA)
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The ultimate aim of researchers in the area of decontamination is to develop the perfect decontaminant - a substance that will degrade all contaminants but will leave surfaces and environments unharmed. Published research into zero-valent metal particles ZVMs, in particular iron, shows that these particles, particularly those whose size is on the nanoscale, have the potential to be used as a decontaminant. This report examines the literature on nanoscale ZVMs, their potential use as decontaminants and ways to enhance their activity. Most of the research to date has looked at the reductive potential of ZVMs but it has been reported that zerovalent iron ZVI can actually catalyse oxidative degradation in a Fenton-type reaction. Thus this report also explores Fenton-type degradation of chemical warfare agents. The report also examines methods of incorporating nanoscale ZVM particles onto solid supports which may be useful for increasing the lifetime, activity and usability of the particles. Finally, possible challenges to developing ZVMs as a decontaminant are discussed.
- Chemical, Biological and Radiological Warfare