The Intelligence Community Reorganization of 1992
NATIONAL WAR COLL WASHINGTON DC
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The end of the cold war and the federal deficit national interest led Congress to propose legislation in 1992 to reorganize the Intelligence Community. Senate and House bills laid out almost identical legislation designed to reduce duplication of effort and improve the quality of intelligence. value maximizing. If approved, bureaucratic control of the Intelligence Community, including all budgetary control, would have been centralized under a newly created Director of National Intelligence. It was taken as a given, that the defense budget and with it the intelligence budget had to be reduced if the United States was to attain the goal of a balanced budget. All of this is consistent with what Graham Allison calls the Model I Rational Policy concept of The Government as a rational unitary decision maker, with one set of specified goals and one set of perceived options. I However, a closer examination of the details of the legislative process reveals what Allison calls the Model II Organizational Process. The original legislation died, but The Intelligence Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1993, which became law, is the result of classic Model II activity. The details of this decision making process in which the Director of Central Intelligence and the Secretary of Defense are able to retain all of the power intended for the new Director of National Intelligence form the core of this paper. Figure 1 provides a brief legislative history of the reorganization.
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