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Three-Dimensional Nano-Lithography for Emerging Technologies

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Final progress rept. 20 Aug 2001-19 May 2006

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Grayscale lithography has shown particular success in the pursuit of surface machining capabilities because of the flexibility and convenience it offers in the fabrication of arbitrary three-dimensional surfaces. Accordingly, grayscale lithography has been demonstrated for a wide range of applications, including refractive and diffractive optical elements for focusing and beam shaping, optical interconnects, and MEMS. While our original motivation for this research area was the fabrication of three different micro-optical devices that would enable novel photonic devices, our efforts and results went considerably beyond that modest goal. Thus, in addition to demonstrating a grayscale coupling device and tilted mirrors, we designed and realized other approaches to coupling light from an optical fiber, fabricated a retro-reflector for the holographic exposure of three-dimensional photonic crystals, designed and realized compound-angle microprisms for arbitrary beam steering to enable free-space optical interconnection on a chip scale, produced a large-area blazed grating on a convex lens for space-based spectrometer, and fabricated numerous diffractive optical elements, such as high-efficiency lenses, for a variety of applications. We also developed a novel concept of an optical die for high-density interface between optical-fiber cable and chip-scale photonic circuitry, and demonstrated its feasibility by fabricating a prototype.

Subject Categories:

  • Electrical and Electronic Equipment
  • Manufacturing and Industrial Engineering and Control of Production Systems
  • Printing and Graphic Arts

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