Environmental Toxicity of the Explosives RDX and TNT in Soil to the Soil Invertebrate Folsomia candida
EDGEWOOD CHEMICAL BIOLOGICAL CENTER ABERDEEN PROVING GROUND MD
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We investigated the toxicity of hexahydro-1,3,5- trinitro-1,3,5-triazine RDX and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene TNT to the soil invertebrate Folsomia candida Collembola in five natural soils Sassafras sandy loam SSL, Teller sandy loam TSL, Richfield clay loam RCL, Kirkland clay loam KCL, and Webster clay loam WCL. According to the Ecological Soil Screening Level Eco-SSL criteria USEPA 2003, relative bioavailability scores for organic chemicals in these soils were considered high for SSL and TSL medium for RCL and KCL and relatively low or WCL soil. We investigated whether soil type affects the toxicity of RDX or TNT in soil to Collembola by adapting a standardized Folsomia reproduction test ISO 112671998. Adult survival and juvenile production by F. candida were assessed using replicated multiple treatment concentrations and appropriate controls. Juvenile production data were analyzed using nonlinear regression models. Initial EC20 and EC50 values MG KG-1 for juvenile production in freshly amended soils were, respectively for RDX 7 and 30 TSL, 16 and 55 RCL, 28 and 90 SSL, 31 and 110 KCL, 3 and 50 WCL and for TNT 7 and 17 TSL, 4 and 23 RCL, 17 and 25 SSL, 21 and 37 KCL, 174 and 259 WCL. These provisional results indicate that the soil with highest organic matter and clay contents WCL sustained the least TNT toxicity, while soil with lowest organic matter and clay contents TSL, sustained the greatest TNT toxicity to F. candida reproduction based on EC50 values. Correlation analysis showed relatively week relationships overall among the soil properties and toxicity endpoints for RDX.
- Agricultural Chemistry
- Miscellaneous Detection and Detectors
- Ammunition and Explosives