Inhalation and Percutaneous Toxicokinetics of Sulfur Mustard and Its adducts in Hairless Guinea Pigs and Marmosets. Efficacy of Nasal Scavengers
Annual rept. 1 Aug 2003-31 Jul 2004
PRINS MAURITS LABORATORIUM TNO RIJSWIJK(NETHERLANDS)
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As a follow-up to DAMDl7-94-V-4OO9, the inhalation toxicokinetics of sulfur mustard are studied in more detail in the hairless guinea pig as well as in a species more relevant for man, i.e., the marmoset. Furthermore, its percutaneous toxicokinetics are studied in the hairless guinea pig at a lower exposure level than previously. The aspect of toxicologically relevant time period of in vivo persistence of sulfur mustard is integrated in these investigations. Hairless guinea pigs were nose-only exposed to a dose of sulfur mustard vapor in air corresponding with 0.3 LCt5O. At various time points up to 24 h after ending the exposure the animals were sacrificed and DNA-adducts were measured in various regions of the respiratory tract. Within this time period the number of DNA-adduct increased and subsequently decreased with time. The highest numbers were measured in the upper airways. No adducts were found in the lungs, which is in agreement with previous findings. Animals were also exposed to 1 LCt5O sulfur mustard vapor in air. The results of these experiments are not available yet. A chair was developed for fixation of marmoset monkeys in order to expose this species nose-only to toxicant vapor in an anatomically natural position.