Modeling the User for Education, Training, and Performance Aiding
Final rept. Jun-Aug 2003
INSTITUTE FOR DEFENSE ANALYSES ALEXANDRIA VA
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Instruction that incorporates the substantial efficiencies of one teacher a computer for every student must employ models that represent the current and the objective states of the learner. These models must include learners cognitive processes, which underlie the human skills, performance, and abilities needed for success in all military operations. These cognitive models are as necessary for performance aiding as they are for instruction. They must be self-generating and established in real time and on demand. Both implicit and explicit models have been used to accomplish these ends, and both types are briefly reviewed. Implicit models bind content and presentation strategy together, while explicit models keep the two separate. Early explicit models were largely quantitative, involving relatively simple learning paradigms. Current explicit models are more qualitative and deal with more complex and comprehensive paradigms. These models may be more suitable for todays uncertain, asymmetric operational environments, which frequently require responses that instructional developers can neither foresee nor prepare for in advance. These operational environments must prepare military personnel to expect the unexpected and meet it with individual and collective agility, creativity, and adaptability. These qualities require the use of powerful and comprehensive cognitive models to support programs of education, training, and performance aiding. Nineteen of these models are briefly reviewed and summarized.
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