Sound Sources and Levels in the Ocean
WOODS HOLE OCEANOGRAPHIC INSTITUTION MA DEPT OF APPLIED OCEAN PHYSICS AND ENGINEERING
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The standard definitions found in the American National Standards on Acoustics are applied to common sound sources used in both underwater acoustics research and in naval sonar systems operation. Recommended metrics are quantified for both continuous and transient sources of sound. The standard definitions are reviewed with theoretical sound source models. Requisite metrics are derived and applied to examples of energy sources of sound such as transients from a small omni explosive, an air-gun, a light bulb and a Dolphin. A generic model of surface ship sonar system emissions is developed as a quantitative model. Active sonar transmissions are analyzed with the requisite quantitative metrics required to characterize these emissions. These results should be useful in environmental assessments, biological experiments and in the system design.
- Physical and Dynamic Oceanography
- Acoustic Detection and Detectors