Augmenting Camera Images for Operators of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles
HUMAN FACTORS RESEARCH INST TNO SOESTERBERG (NETHERLANDS)
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Unmanned aerial vehicles UAVs do not have pilots on board, but operators are very important for the control of the system during operation. Due to a high level of automation, steering of the platform has become relatively easy and most often UAVs follow pre-programmed waypoints. However, manual camera steering is often required. To control the camera, a steering signal from a control station is sent to the camera. The camera then turns to the required position and the camera images are sent back to the control station. In many cases the images also must be coded and decoded. This loop may cause substantial time delays between the control input and changes of the camera pictures in the control room. The delays between steering input and display of the camera images may seriously hamper task performance. For instance, a delay of 0.3 5 already results in a substantial performance decrement. This is because the operator has to wait for the result of the steering input before the next input can be generated Cooke, 1965 Wagenaar, 1971 Veldhuyzen Stassen, 1973. Fast feedback about the results of the steering input is therefore essential for adequate steering performance.