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Mathematical Model Analysis of Heart-Arterial Interaction in Hypertension

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We studied heart-arterial interaction in hypertension-induced left ventricular hypertrophy LVH using a LV time-varying elastance model coupled to a 4-element lumped parameter model of the systemic arterial system. After assessing cardiac and arterial model parameters for normotensive control subjects we applied arterial changes as observed in hypertensive patients with LVH resistance 40 compliance -25 and assumed i no cardiac adaptation ii LVH normalizes systolic wall stress sigma sub s iii LVH normalizes sigma sub s and venous filling pressure P sub v increases such that end-diastolic wall stress sigma sub d is normalized as well. Human in vivo data show that in hypertensives with LVH systolic and diastolic blood pressure increase by about 40 while cardiac output is constant and wall thickness increases by 30-55. In both i and ii, blood pressure increased by only 10 while cardiac output dropped by 20. In ii LV wall thickness increased by only 10. In contrast, the predictions of iii were in qualitative and quantitative agreement with in-vivo human data. We conclude that besides an increase in LV mass and wall thickness, normalizing sigma sub s, cardiac adaptations further consist of an increase in P sub v, normalizing sigma sub d and preserving cardiac output in the presence of an impaired diastolic function.

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  • Anatomy and Physiology
  • Medicine and Medical Research

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