Accession Number:

ADA411202

Title:

N-Acetylcysteine as a Provisional, Commercial Off-The Shelf (COTS) Chemoprotectant Against Sulfur Mustard

Descriptive Note:

Corporate Author:

NAVAL HEALTH RESEARCH CENTER WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB OH TOXICOLOGY DETACHMENT

Report Date:

2003-01-01

Pagination or Media Count:

33.0

Abstract:

Sulfur mustard is a vesicant with a long history of use in conflict. It produces coalescing blisters of the skin, inflicts temporary or permanent blindness through profound irritation or corrosion of the eyes and produces dramatic lung injury. Extensive exposure can destroy the immune system by destruction of bone marrow cells. There is no antidote for HD, or effective treatment other than rapid decontamination and supportive care. Current development plans schedule a licensed HD prophylaxis in the FYI 0-19 range. Animal and tissue studies have suggested efficacy for NAC as a chemoprotectant against acrylamide, asbestos, cigarette smoke, catecholamines, diesel exhaust, free radicals, and methoxyacetic acid. Recent animal studies have demonstrated the ability of NAC to significantly decrease lung damage from HD and a HD simulant. Tissue culture studies indicated that NAC may also decrease the damage of HD to skin and lymphocytes. Given the historical effectiveness of HD on the battlefield, the lack of any effective treatment, the demonstrated general chemoprotective properties of NAC, the safety of NAC administration, the lack of a licensure requirement, and the data supporting efficacy against HD exposure, we suggest the daily oral administration of the maximum safe dose of NAC to personnel entering combat zones.

Subject Categories:

  • Biochemistry
  • Logistics, Military Facilities and Supplies
  • Chemical, Biological and Radiological Warfare

Distribution Statement:

APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE