Accession Number:

ADA409798

Title:

The Synthesis and Characterization of New Energetic Salts

Descriptive Note:

Technical paper

Corporate Author:

AIR FORCE RESEARCH LAB EDWARDS AFB CA PROPULSION DIRECTORATE WEST

Report Date:

2000-10-30

Pagination or Media Count:

5.0

Abstract:

Presently, hydrazine is the state of the art in many attitude control devices on many currently used satellite systems. The physical properties of hydrazine, namely its density and high vapor pressure, have led several research groups to search for new superior materials. In the late 1980s and through most of the 1990s significant amounts of work were placed on two low melting salt, hydroxylammonium nitrate HAN, and hydroxylammonium dinitramide HADN. These two salts have from 60-70 density increase over that of hydrazine and when formulated with various fuels, make for energetic propellant materials. Unfortunately, hydroxylammonium nitrate and dinitramide salts have many safety, compatibility, storage, and ignition problems. At the Air Force Research Laboratory, we have been pursuing the synthesis and characterization of new energetic salts, as new monopropellant ingredients. Herein, we will discuss our synthetic work with a new large array of energetic salts based on high nitrogen, 1, 2, 4-triazoles, and on the very energetic 1, 2-bisoxyaminoethane. This discussion will include the synthesis, characterization, initial small scale safety testing impact and friction, and some initial thermal stability studies of all these salts. It was realized that there are several, easily synthesized, nitrogen heterocycles that could be paired with anions including the nitrate, perchlorate, and dinitramide anions to form highly energetic salts. The four heterocycle systems are 1,2,4-triazole 4-amino-1,2,4-triazole 3,4,S-triamino-1,2,4-triazole and 1,2,3-triazole Figure 1. Ail of these heterocycles are either commercially available or are easily synthesized in high yield from inexpensive starting materials, and all have high heats of formation.

Subject Categories:

  • Organic Chemistry
  • Rocket Propellants

Distribution Statement:

APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE