The Budget System and Concepts
OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET WASHINGTON DC
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The budget system of the United States Government provides the means for the President and Congress to decide how much money to spend, what to spend it on, and how to raise the money they have decided to spend. Through the budget system, they determine the allocation of resources among the Governments major functions-such as providing for the national defense, regulating commerce, and ensuring the availability of health care-and among individual programs, projects, and activities-such as building navy ships, issuing patents, and controlling diseases. The budget system focuses primarily on dollars, but it also allocates other resources, such as Federal employment. The decisions made in the budget process affect the nation as a whole, State and local governments, and individual Americans. Many budget decisions have worldwide significance. The Congress and the President enact budget decisions into law. The budget system ensures these laws are carried out. This chapter provides an overview of the budget system and explains some of the more important budget concepts. It includes summary dollar amounts to illustrate major concepts. Other chapters of the budget documents discuss these amounts, and more detailed amounts, in greater depth. A glossary of budget terms appears at the end of the chapter. Various laws, enacted to carry out requirements of the Constitution, govern the budget system. The chapter refers to the principal ones by title throughout the text and gives complete citations in the section just preceding the glossary.
- Administration and Management