Joint Operations Case Study. Weseruebung Nord: Germany's Invasion of Norway, 1940
AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLL MAXWELL AFB AL
Pagination or Media Count:
In the history of modern warfare, Weseruebung Nord, the German invasion of Norway in 1940, occupies a distinguished station as the first campaign jointly planned and executed by ground, sea, and air forces. This paper examines the origins, concept, and planning of Weseruebung Nord, as well as the execution of the landings. Brief attention is given to the defense of the landings against Allied counterstrokes and to issues associated with unified planning and direction. The origins of the campaign are found in the German naval experience in the First World War, interwar naval strategy debates, and the persona of Grand Admiral Erich Raeder, who was determined to secure a decisive role for the German Navy in the Second World War. Raeder capitalized on the fortuitous opportunities the Russo-Finnish War and the Norwegian traitor Vidkun Quisling presented to win Hitler over to his naval plans. kaeder and the Navy heavily influenced the concept development and planning of the campaign in concert with the High Command of the German Armed Forces, which also had a vested organizational interest in a military solution of the Norwegian issue. In executing Weseruebung Nord, the German Armed Forces encountered major problems only at Oslo and Narvik. However, the operational-level success of the campaign tends to draw attention away from fundamental problems regarding unified planning and direction which emerged during the preparation and execution of the campaign.
- Military Operations, Strategy and Tactics