Commanders' Display of Terrain Information: Manipulations of Display Dimensionality and Frame of Reference to Support Battlefield Visualization.
ILLINOIS UNIV AT URBANA-CHAMPAIGN SAVOYAVIATION RESEARCH LAB
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To gain a better understanding of the effects of display dimensionality and frame of reference on battlefield commanders ability to understand the constraints of battlefield terrain, we constructed three electronic map displays, depicting both flat and mountainous terrain, and studied their effects on making various types of tactical judgments. U.S. Military Academy officers were presented with a two-dimensional 2D contour display, a three- dimensional 3D static, exocentric display, and a 3D interactive display of various battlefield situations i.e., friendly and enemy units, travel paths, destinations and were asked to make judgments regarding unit mobility across the depicted terrain, relative distances between units and or destinations, and line of sight LOS to specified locations. Officers were asked to make judgments as quickly and accurately as possible, while taking into account pre-defined mobility rules that had been distributed before the actual experimental session and were available throughout the study. In addition, officers were asked to provide verbal confidence ratings of having responded accurately to individual judgments. Results showed performance trade-offs in making the three tactical judgments, depending upon electronic map display format used. Distance judgments were best served by the 2D display, while the 3D interactive display best supported LOS judgments. Officers performance in making mobility judgments was affected by the degree of vertical development of the depicted battlefield terrain. The relationship of participants spatial ability to their performance in making tactical judgments and using interactive display capabilities is also discussed. When participants were provided with interactive viewpoint tools, there was a trend toward less frequent use maneuvering for officers with higher levels of spatial ability.
- Cartography and Aerial Photography
- Military Operations, Strategy and Tactics