Provide for the Common Defense: The President Bypasses Congress
ARMY COMMAND AND GENERAL STAFF COLL FORT LEAVENWORTH KS
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The United States of America has deployed its armed forces 234 times in response to national threats or as a part of a multinational force. In the history of this nation, Congress has declared war only five times. Presidents have deployed the military might of the United States to advance their foreign policy agendas. Many of these deployments have not been with the prior approval of Congress. Since World War II, the United States has led the worlds effort to create international security. This effort has averted a third world war. The creation of collective security bodies assures the continuance of overall world peace. The United States negotiates and ratifies these treaties within the confines of the constitutional powers vested in the executive and legislative branches. The use of these arrangements to employ United States armed forces without prior consent from Congress is contentious. The War Powers Resolution of 1973 came about as a manifestation of Congress frustration regarding presidential non-compliance with the Constitution. The War Powers Resolution attempted to force the Commander-in-Chief to comply with the intent of the Framers of the Constitution. This has not occurred. Only twice since the enactment of the WPR has the President attempted to comply. Presidential propensity to deploy forces for advancement of foreign policy goals has increased in the last 25 years. This monograph concludes that the Congress must take positive action to regain its warmaking authority. History of military action without congressional support spans all Presidents since 1973 and encompasses both political parties. President Clintons current compliance to the WPR offers Congress the precedence to regain their authority.
- Military Operations, Strategy and Tactics