Modeling Cryptosporidium spp. Oocyst Inactivation in Bubble-Diffuser Ozone Contactors
ILLINOIS UNIV AT URBANA DEPT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
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The CT concept product of disinfectant concentration and characteristic contact time is currently used to demonstrate compliance with disinfection requirements for Giardia lamblia G. lamblia and viruses under the Surface Water Treatment Rule SWTR. Minimum CT requirements include relatively large safety factors to account for possible deviations from actual disinfection efficiencies achieved in full-scale contactors. The application of this conservative regulatory approach for Cryptosporidium parvum C. parvum might result in unrealistic disinfection requirements under the Enhanced SWTR due to the much stronger resistance of this protozoan parasite to inactivation by all chemical disinfectants used in drinking water applications. There is a need for the development of approaches that could provide a more accurate assessment of actual inactivation efficiency achieved in disinfection contactors. The main objective of this study is to develop and apply a mathematical model for predicting the inactivation of Cryptosporidium spp. C. parvum and C. muris oocysts in ozone bubble-diffuser contactors. The model is calibrated with semi-batch kinetic data, verified with pilot-scale inactivation experiments, and used for predicting and optimizing full-scale disinfection efficiency.
- Water Pollution and Control
- Environmental Health and Safety