Silver Hazards to Fish, Wildlife, and Invertebrates: A Synoptic Review.
NATIONAL BIOLOGICAL SERVICE LAUREL MD PATUXENT WILDLIFE RESEARCH CENTER
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Ecological and toxicological aspects of silver Ag and silver salts in the environment are briefly summarized with an emphasis on natural resources. Elevated silver concentrations in biota occur in the vicinities of sewage outfalls, electroplating plants, mine waste sites, and silver-iodide seeded areas in the United States, the photography industry is the major source of anthropogenic silver discharges into the biosphere. Silver and its compounds are not known to be mutagenic, teratogenic, or carcinogenic. Under normal routes of exposure, silver does not pose serious environmental health problems to humans at less than 50 ug total AgL drinking water or 10 ug total Agm3 air. Free silver ion, however, was lethal to representative species of sensitive aquatic plants, invertebrates, and teleosts at nominal water concentrations of 1.2 to 4.9 ugL sublethal effects were significant between 0.17 and 0.6 ugL. Silver was harmful to poultry at concentrations as low as 1.8 mg total Agkg whole egg fresh weight by way of injection, 100 mg total AgL in drinking water, or 200 mg total Agkg in diets sensitive mammals were adversely affected at total silver concentrations as low as 250 ugL in drinking water, 6 mgkg in diets, or 13.9 mgkg whole body.
- Metallurgy and Metallography
- Solid Wastes and Pollution and Control