An Analysis of the Effects of Energy Spreading Loss and Transmission Loss on Low Frequency Active Sonar Operations in Shallow Water
NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA DEPT OF OCEANOGRAPHY
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Energy Spreading Loss ESL is qualitatively defined as the reduction in peak power level due to energy spreading of a transmitted acoustic pulse in tune. An analysis of the impact of bathymetric geometry and sediment type on ESL and TL associated with the Low Frequency ActiveCompact Low Frequency Active LFACLFA sonar operations was conducted utilizing the FEPE, FEPESYN and EXTTD programs to model the time spreading of the acoustic pulse due to multipath propagation in shallow water. Both a Blackman windowed pulse and a Continuous Wave CW pulse were used in this analysis. The Blackman pulse had a center frequency of 244 Hz with a bandwidth of 24 Hz. The CW pulse had a center frequency of 244 Hz with a bandwidth of 0.0625 Hz. Model inputs were a geoacoustic description of the Tanner Bank region off the coast of San Diego and a typical late summer sound speed profile taken from the MOODS database. ESL and TLs impact on low frequency active sonar operations was determined as a function of bathymetry, sediment type, sound speed profile, and pulse length. The results showed that ESL is inversely related to pulse duration and at low frequencies is relatively uninfluenced by sediment type. When pulse lengths were reduced to less than 1 second, ESL became appreciable 6 dB one way and was an important segment of the active sonar equation. TL was found to be the dominating factor in LFACLFA operations for pulse lengths greater than 1 second and was greatly influenced by sediment type and sound speed profile.
- Physical and Dynamic Oceanography
- Undersea and Antisubmarine Warfare
- Acoustic Detection and Detectors