Neural Responses to Injury: Prevention, Protection and Repair; Volume 2: Repair and Regeneration of Peripheral Nerve Damage.
Annual rept. 20 Sep 95-19 Sep 96,
LOUISIANA STATE UNIV NEW ORLEANS
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The fibroblast growth factors FGFs are a family of nine structurally related polypeptides. The best characterized members are acidic FGF FGF-1 and basic FGF FGF-2. Other members of the FGF family include FGF-3 int-2, FGF-4 hstlkfgf, FGF-5, FGF-6, FGF-7 keratinocyte growth factor, KGF, FGF-8 AlGF and FGF-9 glial-activating factor, GAF 1-3. FGF types I and 2 share 53 amino acid sequence homology 4, suggesting that they are derived from a common ancestral gene. They also have a strong affinity for heparin 5,6 and bind to the same cell surface receptor 7. FGFs are involved in various biological activities, including angiogenesis, mitogenesis, cellular differentiation, tumorigenesis, and repair of tissue injury 5, 8, 9. These actions are mediated through specific, high affinity, transmembrane receptors. Four structurally related genes encoding high affinity receptors have been identified 10-13. The FGF receptor has diverse forms, FGFR-1, FGFR-2, FGFR-3 and FGFR-4. FGF-1 binds to all four members of the FGF receptor family and FGF-2 binds to all but FGFR 14-15. FGF is found in many tissues including peripheral nerve, and it is suggested that due to its action on fibroblasts may participate in neuroma formation, a complication of peripheral nerve injury and characterized by accumulation of collagen and extracellular matrix which form a barrier thar regenerating axons cannot penetrate, resulting in bulb- like enlargement or neuroma 1 6, The mechanism of neuroma formation is not understood.
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