Methods for Field Studies of Effects of Military Smokes, Obscurants, and Riot-Control Agents on Threatened and Endangered Species. Volume 2: Methods for Assessing Ecological Risks.
CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING RESEARCH LAB (ARMY) CHAMPAIGN IL
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Smokes, obscurants, and riot-control agents constitute a diverse group of chemical compounds that are released into the environment during military training exercises. Concern has been expressed over the use of these compounds and how they may adversely affect threatened and endangered TE species that reside on military reservations. To evaluate if smokes and obscurants present a hazard to TE species, the appropriate data must be collected. These data must be adequate to evaluate both direct ecological effects effects to TE species that result from direct exposure to smokes or smoke residues and indirect ecological effects effects on TE species that result from effects of smokes on habitats of TE species or on species upon which TE species depend. This report presents an approach for the selection of methods suitable to evaluate the ecological risks that smokes and obscurants present to TE species, summarizes available sampling, survey, and toxicity testing methods, and outlines an approach for estimating risks based on weighing multiple lines of evidence. Volume 1 of this series will be an overview of the entire study and will include information on applicable regulations. Volume 3 will discuss strategies for developing a statistically sound approach to assessing effects of military smokes and obscurants. Volume 4 will discuss appropriate chemical analysis methods.
- Agronomy, Horticulture and Aquiculture