Prospects for CFD on Petaflops Systems
INSTITUTE FOR COMPUTER APPLICATIONS IN SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING HAMPTON VA
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With tetraflops-scale computational modeling expected to be routine by 2003-04, under the terms of the Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative ASCT of the U.S. Department of Energy, and with teraflops-capable platforms already available to a small group of users, attention naturally focuses on the next symbolically important milestone, computing at rates of 10 to the 15th power floating point operations per second, or petaflops. For architectural designs that are in any sense extrapolations of todays, petaflops-scale computing will require approximately one-million-fold instruction-level concurrency. Given that cost-effective one thousand-fold concurrency is challenging in practical computational fluid dynamics simulations today, algorithms are among the many possible bottlenecks to CFD on petaflops systems. After a general outline of the problems and prospects of petaflops computing, we examine the issue of algorithms for PDE computations in particular, a back-of-the-envelope parallel complexity analysis focuses on the latency of global synchronization steps in the implicit algorithm. We argue that the latency of synchronization steps is a fundamental, but addressable, challenge for PDE computations with static data structures, which are primarily determined by grids. We provide recent results with encouraging scalability for parallel implicit Euler simulations using the Newton-Krylov-Schwarz solver in the PETSc software library. The prospects for PDE simulations with dynamically evolving data structures are far less clear.
- Computer Programming and Software
- Fluid Mechanics