Effects of Tunnel Design Characteristics on Driving Behaviour and Traffic Safety: A Literature Review (Effecten van tunnelontwerpkenmerken op rijgedrag en verkeersveiligheid: Een literatuurstudie).
HUMAN FACTORS RESEARCH INST TNO SOESTERBERG (NETHERLANDS)
Pagination or Media Count:
Due to financial and technical considerations, the design of road tunnels often differs from open road design. Standards are applied more loosely, which leads to suboptimal design solutions in terms of traffic safety and comfort. This may affect the level of driving safety. This literature review provides an overview of the effect of tunnel design characteristics on road user behaviour, and can serve as a basis for recommendations on specific tunnel design standards. Various tunnel design characteristics are discussed with respect to their effect on driving behaviour. Tunnel entrances are of special interest, since they confront road users with the transition from open roads to tunnels. To provide safe driving conditions, precautions should be taken to make this transition as smooth as possible. Besides this, the amount of fear and discomfort drivers experience should be minimised and anticipation of upcoming traffic situations should be allowed. Although the focus is on tunnels on motorways, literature of tunnels on other road categories outside the built-up area is discussed as well to provide a more extensive view on tunnel related problems. The effects of lighting, proximity of tunnel wall, lane width, tunnel length, the longitudinal profile, road signs, road markings, emergency lay-bys, and entries and exits will be discussed successively in terms of their effect on driving behaviour. Finally, an overview is provided of remaining issues that need thorough investigation in future research in order to come to optimal standards for tunnel design.
- Civil Engineering