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Capsule Aerothermodynamics (L' Aerothermodynamique des Capsules).
ADVISORY GROUP FOR AEROSPACE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT NEUILLY-SUR-SEINE (FRAN CE)
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This report is a compilation of the edited proceedings for the Capsule Aerothermodynamics course held at the von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics VKI in Rhode-Saint-Genese, Belgium, 20-22 March 1995. At present, on a world scale, different capsules and penetrators are being considered for planetary entry, such as the Huygens probe to Titan, the Intermarsnet to Mars, and a probe attached to the Mercury orbiter to Venus. In addition, conceptual studies for earth re-entry are in progress for crew transport vehicles. Their geometries vary from low lift to drag ratio Apollo type to more advanced and complex bent biconic high lift to drag configurations. Because of the renewed interest in Capsule Aerothermodynamics, this course was organized to stimulate research in this field for young engineers as well as to update expertise for more experienced aerodynamicists. This series of lectures, supported by the AGARD Fluid Dynamics Panel and the von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics covered all aerodynamic design aspects related to planetary probe and capsule configurations. Critical phenomena occurring during the different regimes of flight from the rarefied through the hypersonic, supersonic, transonic and subsonic portions of flight are reviewed. The impact of real gas and rarefaction on capsule aerothermodynamics, and in particular on forebody and wake flows, is addressed. In addition, present day computational, and experimental capabilities to assess radiation, blackout, ablation and the characterization of the dynamic derivatives are discussed.
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