Horizontal Team Member Exchange (HMX): How Team Member Relationships Affect Individual and Team Outcomes,
AIR FORCE INST OF TECH WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB OH
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Teams build our automobiles Sherman, 1994, manage our companies Hackman, 1990, protect our country Oser, McCalJum, Salas, Morgan, 1989, and are increasingly employed in the U.S. workplace Ilgen, Major, Hollenbeck, Sego, 1995 to accomplish complex and critical tasks Kozlowski, Gully, McHugh, Salas, Cannon- Bowers, in press. Perhaps the single feature which most distinguishes teams from other organizational forms is that team members are interdependent they must interact to accomplish their work Dyer, 1984. Although some proclaim the benefits of teamwork without caveat e.g., Teampower, 1994, team member interactions can be the source of process losses Steiner, 1972 as well as synergistic performance gains Hackman, 1987. One approach to understanding team member interactions is to focus on dyadic working relationships to seek to understand how they develop e.g., Gabarro, 1990 and how they influence the way team members interact. Although role theory e.g., Katz Kahn, 1978 and its derivatives, leader-member exchange LMX e.g., Graen Scandura, 1987 and team-member exchange TMX Seers, 1989 provide a framework for understanding workplace interactions, they do not address the working relationships in team dyads. Role theory describes the interactions in social syStems in general but provides no specific guidance for team dyads. LMX focuses on the leader-subordinate dyad and is concerned solely with the quality of the vertical exchange relationship it acknowledges, but does not address, the impact of horizontal relationships. TMX focuses on the relationship between a single member and the entire peer group, ignoring the dyadic interactions between team members.
- Administration and Management
- Personnel Management and Labor Relations