Standing at the Gates of the City: Operational Level Actions and Urban Warfare.
ARMY COMMAND AND GENERAL STAFF COLL FORT LEAVENWORTH KS SCHOOL OF ADVANCED MIL ITARY STUDIES
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The studies on modern urban warfare are preoccupied with the tactical problems associated with urban combat. Since World War II, conflicts in the urban environment have given modern armies complex problems which seem insurmountable. The tactical level emphasis attempts to circumvent the cost in time and resources normally associated with urban warfare. The operational commander who has responsibility for campaign planning and execution has considerable influence on the outcome of tactical urban combat. An assessment by the operational commander should clarify how a potential enemy may use urban terrain and what forces the enemy has to meet their objectives. When this evaluation is coupled with U.S. operational objectives, the importance of urban areas is evident. The six operational operating systems provide a good method for analyzing the major operation which will include urban combat. The operating systems have a synergistic effect on operational level warfare and their interaction has played an important part in tactical urban combat. The U.S. military has had numerous successes and failures in urban combat. Three such case studies are evaluated in this analysis. The operational level conditions established prior to tactical urban combat either facilitated or hampered tactical unit actions in each.
- Military Operations, Strategy and Tactics
- Unconventional Warfare