Government-Sponsored Research and Development Efforts in the Area of Intelligent Tutoring Systems. Summary Report.
INSTITUTE FOR DEFENSE ANALYSES ALEXANDRIA VA
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Individualized tutoring has long been recognized as offering a two-standard deviation improvement in student achievement over what is achieved by traditional classroom teaching methods Bloom 1984. ITS are intended to make the advantages of individualized tutoring widely available through the use of modern computer technology. Essentially, an ITS is a computer-aided system that acts like a personal tutor in presenting instruction and remediation in a manner tailored to each individual, based on a gradual accumulation of knowledge about that individual. The majority of early computer-aided instruction systems were either tutorial or drill-and-practice systems. In both these forms of computer-aided instruction, the student is led through the material to be taught, providing a response at every step. Based on these responses, the student is moved ahead to the next part of the material, or else the current part is reviewed until subsequent responses indicate correct understanding. The actions taken by the system to student responses are mostly preprogrammed. Researchers began investigating how to tailor instructional actions to individual students and this led to the type of computer-aided instruction systems called intelligent tutoring systems. KAR P. 9
- Personnel Management and Labor Relations
- Computer Programming and Software