Elimination of Quinine in Two Subjects After Ingestion of Tonic Water: An Exploratory Study
FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION WASHINGTON DC OFFICE OF AVIATION MEDICINE
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Biological specimens from 8 fatal aviation accidents out of 775 fatal aviation accidents analyzed in 1991 and 1992 were found to contain quinine. In one case, the investigators sought to identify the source of quinine found in the pilot. It was suggested that the quinine might have come from the consumption of tonic water. Since no recent use of quinine or tonic water could be found, the investigators asked how long quinine could be detected in a urine specimen. A limited research project was undertaken to provide a preliminary range of the approximate length of time quinine could be detected in urine and blood. Each of 2 male subjects was given a 20 oz. bottle of tonic water, which contained 35 mg of quinine. Quinine was detected using standard laboratory TLC and HPLC methods. Quinine has such diverse applications as a treatment for muscle cramps and malaria, in addition to being an additive in tonic water. Since adverse effects have been identified at plasma concentrations between 10- 15 microgmL, no performance effects would be expected from the maximum concentrations of quinine found 0.291 microgmL in this study after the ingestion of one 20 oz. bottle of tonic water. However, based on this study, the possibility of prolonged detection over 8 days of quinine should a serve as a warning against using this as a sign of recent use of quinine directly or in association with alcohol, and b alert the investigators to inquire about disorders or conditions that might impair performance, but for which quinine treatment was terminated days before the accident. Tonic water, Quinine.
- Military Aircraft Operations
- Anatomy and Physiology
- Organic Chemistry
- Physical Chemistry