Effects of Shivering on Rifle Shooting Performance in U. S. Marines
NAVAL MEDICAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT COMMAND BETHESDA MD
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Exposure to cold has played a major role in compromising military operations for many years. Cold injuries such as frostbite and trench foot have plagued military personnel in this country since the American Revolution and were critical to military losses. The effects of cold exposure on exercise performance, nutrition, and physiological parameters have been extensively studied throughout the years. Shivering is defined as an increase in reflex, nonlocomotor muscular tone attributable to exposure to cold, with and without visible tremor. Shivering has been associated with the clonus of spastic muscles and has been noted to have overt tremor-like movements. Askew and Shephard reported that coordinated motor skills were impaired while shivering, and Kleinbeckel and Klussman stated that a typical cold tremor involved almost all body parts but mainly the extremities. Thus, Rifle Shooting Accuracy RSA, which is a crucial part of military field operations, would be predicted to decrease due to intense muscular shivering.
- Anatomy and Physiology
- Military Forces and Organizations