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The Glass Ceiling: Potential Causes and Possible Solutions
Final rept. Nov 1992-Jul 1993
HUMAN RESOURCES RESEARCH ORGANIZATION ALEXANDRIA VA
Pagination or Media Count:
Identifying barriers to advancement in its civilian workforce for women, minorities, and the disabled is a continuing concern for the Department of the Army. This literature review focuses on three potential causes of underrepresentation of minorities and women in the management ranks lack of data on the disabled precluded treatment of this subgroup. The three causes of underrepresentation are systemic barriers, stereotypes and biases, and group differences. Systemic barriers are widespread policies and practices that perpetuate discriminatory treatment. Stereotypes and biases are thought to underlie the belief that minorities and women are not suited for managerial jobs. Individual factors and group differences refer to the extent to which individual deficiencies, common to members of a subgroup, are responsible for underrepresentation of women and minorities in the management ranks. Based on findings in the literature, the report suggests avenues for future research on barriers to advancement within the Army and highlights methods that might reduce such barriers.
APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE