Empirical and Semi-Empirical Relationships of Liquid-Vapor, Solid-Vapor, and Solid-Liquid Surface Energies
NAVAL AIR WARFARE CENTER AIRCRAFT DIV WARMINSTER PA AIR VEHICLE AND CREW SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY DEPT
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Surface energy, frequently referred to as surface tension, plays a critical role in materials processing and the evolution of a materials microstructure and properties. Processes critically dependent upon surface energy include casting, rapid solidification processes, flotation separation, smelting, degassing of liquid metals and solidification processing to name a few. However, despite its technological importance, there is a dearth of credible surface energy data available for most alloys and a number of elements. This paper serves as a compilation of useful data and presents correlations that may be used to estimate surface energy.
- Physical Chemistry
- Metallurgy and Metallography
- Manufacturing and Industrial Engineering and Control of Production Systems