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Evaluation of Chloropentafluorobenzene as an Intake Simulant for Chemical Defense Training

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Final rept. Oct 1991-Oct 1992

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For a number of years the U.S. Air Force has been performing research to develop safe intake simulants for chemical warfare agents CWA to provide accurate and quantitative real-time assessment of troop proficiency and gear efficacy during chemical warfare CW field exercises. Chloropentafluorobenzene CPFB was identified and evaluated as a candidate inhalation simulant, and was determined to possess desirable physiochemical and toxicological properties. These include rapid uptake, low metabolism and toxicity, rapid and predictable clearance, real-time detectability by existing portable breathalyzer technology and by fielded CWA detectors, realistic canister breakthrough and commercial availability. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic PBPK model for CPEB has been developed which accurately describes the time course of blood and exhaled air concentrations during and following inhalation exposures of rats and primates to CPFB. This model has been employed to predict human exhaled air concentrations for several hours following brief CPFB exposures, such as might be experienced in training exercises using CPFB as an intake simulant. These simulants could be used to determine the exhaled air concentrations at which personnel would have been incapacitated had the exposure been to a real agent. The PBPK model was also used to calculate internal dose measures for a quantitative assessment of safe exposure criteria for the use of CPFB in such exercises. To assure the safety of personnel it is recommended that field exercises be designed to avoid exposures greater than 30 parts per million ppm , with the daily 8 h time-weighted average not to exceed 3 ppm. The exposure guideline should not impair use of CPFB since field analytical methods can measure CPFB at part per trillion levels.

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  • Chemical, Biological and Radiological Warfare

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