Strategic Management: Managing Change by Managing Participation
INSTITUTE FOR DEFENSE ANALYSES ALEXANDRIA VA
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Strategic management seeks to link strategic planning with decision making and the implementation of decisions. The role of participation-who should participate and how that participation should be managed-is central to effective decision making. This paper discusses the importance of participation in decision making generally and shows how participatory management principles apply to the strategic management process specifically. Strategic management consists of three important steps creating a documented plan, making strategic planning a dynamic part of the management systems, and properly managing participation in the planning process. It requires that an organizations key managers participate in a process to identify objectives, develop strategies and implementation plans to achieve those objectives, and periodically review the implementation of decisions. The process of decision making, implementation, feedback, and review is a continuous one. Practically speaking, effective decision making and implementation means assembling the right mix of people, convincing them that what they are doing is important to the senior executive, and managing their participation in the decision making process effectively. The methods described in this paper, although not a recipe for success, provide some proven techniques that will be of value to many organizations.
- Administration and Management