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Modeling the Effects of Drop Drag and Breakup on Fuel Sprays

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Technical paper

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Spray models have been evaluated using experimentally measured trajectories and drop sizes of single drops injected into a high relative velocity gas flow. The computations were made using a modified version of the KIVA-2 code. It was found that the drop drag coefficient and the drop breakup time model constant had to be adjusted in order to match the measurements. Based on these findings, a new drop drag submodel is proposed in which the drop drag coefficient changes dynamically with the flow conditions. The model accounts for the effects of drop distortion and oscillation due to the relative motion between the drop and the gas. The value of the drag coefficient varies between the two limits of that of a rigid sphere no distortion and that of a disk maximum distortion. The modified model was also applied to diesel sprays. The results show that the spray tip penetration is relatively insensitive to the value used for the drop drag coefficient. However, the distribution of drop sizes within sprays is influenced by drop drag. This is due to the fact that changes in drop drag produce changes in the drop-gas relative velocity. This, in turn, causes changes in the spray drop size through the drop breakup and coalescence processes. The changes occur in such a way that the net effect on the spray penetration is small over the tested ranges of conditions. These results emphasize that measurements of spray penetration are not sufficient to test and produce improved spray models. Instead, local measurements of drop size and velocity are needed to develop accurate spray models.

Subject Categories:

  • Fluidics and Fluerics
  • Fluid Mechanics
  • Fuels

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